Interface SqlService

public interface SqlService
A service to execute SQL statements.

The service is in beta state. Behavior and API might change in future releases. Binary compatibility is not guaranteed between minor or patch releases.

If this cluster is a Hazelcast Jet cluster, a statement can be executed by either the default SQL backend or by Hazelcast Jet backend, as a Jet job. If some of the features used in a statement isn't supported by the default backend, the engine will attempt to execute it using Jet. This class is the API to both backends.

The text below summarizes features supported by the default SQL engine. For a summary of Hazelcast Jet SQL features see com.hazelcast.jet.sql package javadoc in Hazelcast Jet (once released).


Hazelcast is able to execute distributed SQL queries over the following entities:
  • IMap
When an SQL statement is submitted to a member, it is parsed and optimized by the hazelcast-sql module, that is based on Apache Calcite. The hazelcast-sql must be in the classpath, otherwise an exception will be thrown.

During optimization a statement is converted into a directed acyclic graph (DAG) that is sent to cluster members for execution. Results are sent back to the originating member asynchronously and returned to the user via SqlResult.

Querying an IMap

Every IMap instance is exposed as a table with the same name in the partitioned schema. The partitioned schema is included into a default search path, therefore an IMap could be referenced in an SQL statement with or without the schema name.

Column resolution

Every table backed by an IMap has a set of columns that are resolved automatically. Column resolution uses IMap entries located on the member that initiates the query. The engine extracts columns from a key and a value and then merges them into a single column set. In case the key and the value have columns with the same name, the key takes precedence.

Columns are extracted from objects as follows:

  • For non-Portable objects, public getters and fields are used to populate the column list. For getters, the first letter is converted to lower case. A getter takes precedence over a field in case of naming conflict
  • For Portable objects, field names used in the Portable.writePortable(PortableWriter) method are used to populate the column list
The whole key and value objects could be accessed through a special fields __key and this, respectively. If key (value) object has fields, then the whole key (value) field is exposed as a normal field. Otherwise the field is hidden. Hidden fields can be accessed directly, but are not returned by SELECT * FROM ... queries.

If the member that initiates a query doesn't have local entries for the given IMap, the query fails.

Consider the following key/value model:

     class PersonKey {
         private long personId;
         private long deptId;

         public long getPersonId() { ... }
         public long getDepartmentId() { ... }

     class Person {
         public String name;
This model will be resolved to the following table columns:
  • personId BIGINT
  • departmentId BIGINT
  • name VARCHAR
  • __key OBJECT (hidden)
  • this OBJECT (hidden)


Results returned from IMap query are weakly consistent:
  • If an entry was not updated during iteration, it is guaranteed to be returned exactly once
  • If an entry was modified during iteration, it might be returned zero, one or several times


When a query is executed, an SqlResult is returned. You may get row iterator from the result. The result must be closed at the end. The code snippet below demonstrates a typical usage pattern:
     HazelcastInstance instance = ...;

     try (SqlResult result = instance.sql().execute("SELECT * FROM person")) {
         for (SqlRow row : result) {
             long personId = row.getObject("personId");
             String name = row.getObject("name");
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    SqlResult execute​(SqlStatement statement)
    Executes an SQL statement.
    default SqlResult execute​(String sql, Object... params)
    Convenient method to execute a distributed query with the given parameters.